X-ray apparatus, Mo, complete

LD 554801
X-ray apparatus, Mo, complete
X-ray apparatus, Mo, complete

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This experiment/set up contains dangerous goods.
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Fully-featured, microprocessor-controlled apparatus with molybdenum X-ray tube and goniometer designed for conducting a wide variety of experiments in X-ray physics. The high-voltage system, X-ray tube and experiment chamber are all contained within a radiation-proof housing. Designed as a school X-ray apparatus and fully protected equipment. The type approval is also valid for additional X-ray tubes (Fe, Cu, Ag, W, Au). The X-ray tubes are supplied already fully adjusted so that they can be easily interchanged. Utmost safety and operational comfort is ensured by automatic door locking, which unlocks the doors automatically, when no x-ray radiation is being generated.
Two large displays show all relevant information concerning the current experiment. The tube voltage and tube current can be set within the ranges 0 to 35 kV and 0 to 1 mA respectively. The built-in rate meter including enables direct measurement in conjunction with a Geiger-Müller counter tube. The X-ray apparatus can also be connected to a PC via the USB port (software included) for recording Bragg spectra. Alternatively, the two analogue outputs (counting rate and angular position) permit data acquisition using a chart recorder.
The goniometer (554 831) enables precise setting of any angular position of the sensor and the target as well as coupled 2:1 sensor and target motion, both manual and automatic angular scans are possible.
Two screened coaxial lead-ins and one free access duct provide access to the experiment chamber, e.g. for connecting an x-ray energy detector.
Device fully assembled and adjusted, ready for operation.

Technical data

  • School X-ray apparatus and fully protected equipment with German type approval for school use (approval no. BFS 05/07 V/SchRöV) (suitable for the operation with the interchangeable tubes: Fe, Cu, Mo, Ag, W, Au)
  • Dose rate at a distance of 10 cm: <1 µS/h
  • Two independent safety circuits for doors, high voltage and emission current (safety approval by TÜV Rheinland and according to requirement regulations for PTB 2005 type approval)
  • Automatic door locking: doors can be opened only, when no high voltage is present i.e. no X-ray radiation can be generated (safety approval by TÜV Rheinland and according to requirement regulations for PTB 2005 type approval)
  • High voltage: 0 ... 35.0 kV (regulated DC voltage)
  • Tube current: 0 ... 1.00 mA (independent regulated DC)
  • Visible X-ray tube with molybdenum anode for characteristic short-wave radiation:
    Kα = 17.4 keV (71.0 pm), Kβ = 19.6 keV (63.1 pm)
  • Fluorescent screen for transillumination experiments: d = 15 cm
  • Built-in rate meter including voltage supply for GM counter tube
  • Loudspeaker: for audible ratemeter
  • Two 4-digit displays (25 mm high) for displaying the following as desired: high voltage, anode current, counting rate, target/sensor angle, scanning range, step width, gate time
  • Goniometer (554 831), stepper-motor-controlled
    Operating modes: manual control and automatic scan for sensor only, target only, 2:1 coupling
    Angular range:
    Target unlimited (0° ... 360°)
    Sensor -10° ... +170° Step width: 0.1°
  • Exposure timer, gate time: 0.5 s ... 9999 s
  • Bushes in the experiment chamber: high-voltage coaxial cable, BNC coaxial cable, empty channel for e.g. tubing, cable etc.
  • Analogue outputs: each proportional to target angle and to counting rate for chart recorder connection
  • USB port for connecting a PC to control the X-ray apparatus, data recording and evaluation by the delivered Windows software
  • LabVIEW and MATLAB driver for Windows available free of charge at http:/www.ld-didactic.com for user defined controlling and measuring
  • Input voltage: 230 V (±10 %)/47 - 63 Hz
  • Power consumption: 120 VA
  • Dimensions: 67 cm x 48 cm x 35 cm
  • Weight: 41 kg

Scope of delivery

  • X-ray apparatus with molybdenum tube
  • Goniometer (554 831)
  • NaCl crystal (554 78), lattice spacing: 282 pm
  • Zirconium foil
  • Cover for fluorescent screen
  • Dust cover
  • USB cable
  • Software for Windows 2000/XP/Vista/7/8/10
  • Product key for experiment description for online use in LeyLab and for offline use in the Document Center

1 55478 NaCl crystal for Bragg reflection LD
1 554800 X-ray apparatus LD
1 554831 Goniometer LD
1 554861 X-ray tube, Mo LD

Additionally required

1 55901 End-window counter with cable for α, β, γ and X-rays LD


Up to now, the resolution available from school X-ray apparatuses could only record the characteristic lines in a Bragg spectrum with low sharpness. This meant that they became too wide and could only be measured with too small intensity in comparison with the continuum. Using the HD accessory X-ray, which consists of a high-resolution collimator and Geiger counter holder with narrow slits in addition to new software, the maximum possible angular resolution of your goniometer increases to 0.01°. Together with the narrow slits, Bragg spectra with 4-fold resolution are possible. This means that not only the lines are sharper by a factor of 4, but also that the contrast between sharper lines and wide continuum is correspondingly increased.

A CT scan with the the x-ray apparatus.
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